Type: Personal adherence to gender roles
Citation: Gage EA. Gender attitudes and sexual behaviors: Comparing center and marginal athletes and nonathletes in a collegiate setting. Violence Against Women. 2008; 14(2): 1014-1032.
Use of Scale: Measure
Level of Generality: Individual
# of Items: 24
Theme: Gender/social norms, SRH/HIV
Region: North America
Urban / Rural: nr
Age Group: Can't tell
Age Range: Mean age: 21.95 for nonathlete, 20.35 for marginal sport, 20.18 for center sport
# of Subscales: 3
Subscale Name(s): Masculinity (M); Femininity (F); Masuclinity-Femininity (M-F)
Direction and Meaning:
Response Range: 5-point scale ranging from 0 to 4 (indicating highest identification with femininity for F scale and masculinity for the M and M-F scales)
Internal Consistency: NA
Internal Consistency by Subgroup: NA
Test-retest Reliability: NA
Sample Items: Masculinity: "Not at all independent, Very independent"; Femininity: "Not at all emotional, Very emotional"; Masculinity-Femininity: "Not at all aggressive, Very aggressive"
Measured Outcome(s): Contraception
Contraceptive use frequency
Detailed Outcome(s) Description
How often do you use contraception when having sex? (Every time, almost every time, about half of the time, less than half of the time, never, I do not have sex)
Statistical Method (Most Adjusted)
Reference group for gender indicator
Higher vs. lower masculinity; higher vs. lower femininity; higher vs lower polar dimensions of gender
Masculinity scores, femininity scores, and polar dimensions of gender scores were not significantly associated with rates of contraceptive use.
Summary association oriented to reflect the following relationships: Positive association: indicates more equitable views or division of power and greater contraceptive use or more inequitable views/division of power and lower contraceptive use; Inverse association: reflects more equitable gender views/division of power and lower contraceptive use.
Age, number of sisters, number of brothers, race, religious service attendance, class year, fraternity involvement, mother's education, father's education, sport team embeddedness, type of sport played