Type: Views on gender roles in general
Citation: Impett EA, Schooler D, Tolman DL. To be seen and not heard: femininity ideology and adolescent girls' sexual health. Arch Sex Behav. 2006; 35(2): 131-44.
Use of Scale: Measure
Level of Generality: Individual
# of Items Reported: 17
Region: North America
Urban / Rural: nr
Ethnicity: 59.5% white, 27.6% Latina, 6.9% multiethnic, 2.6% African-American, 1.7% Asian or Pacific Islander, 1.7% did not provide a description of ethnicity
Age Group: Includes adolescents (<18)
Age Range: 16 to 19
# of Subscales: 2
Subscale Name(s): Inauthentic self in relationships; Objectified relationship with body
Direction and Meaning:
Response Range: 6-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree)
Internal Consistency: NA
Internal Consistency by Subgroup: NA
Test-retest Reliability: NA
Sample Items: I worry that I make other feel bad if I am successful; I would not change the way I do things in order to please someone.
- Inauthentic Self in Relationships Subscale
- I would tell a friend I think she looks nice, even if I think she shouldn’t go out of the house dressed like that.
- I worry that I make others feel bad if I am successful.
- I would not change the way I do things in order to please someone else. (reverse coded)
- I tell my friends what I honestly think even when it is an unpopular idea. (reverse coded)
- Often I look happy on the outside in order to please others, even if I don’t feel happy on the inside.
- I wish I could say what I feel more often than I do.
- I feel like it’s my fault when I have disagreements with my friends.
- When my friends ignore my feelings, I think that my feelings weren’t very important anyway.
- I usually tell my friends when they hurt my feelings. (reverse coded)
- Objectified Relationship with Body Subscale
- The way I can tell that I am at a good weight is when I fit into a small size.
- I often wish my body were different.
- I think that a girl has to be thin to feel beautiful.
- I think a girl has to have a light complexion and delicate features to be thought of as beautiful.
- I am more concerned about how my body looks than how my body feels.
- I often feel uncomfortable in my body.
- There are times when I have really good feelings in my body. (reverse coded)
- The way I decide I am at a good weight is when I feel healthy. (reverse coded)
Measured Outcome(s): Contraception
Detailed Outcome(s) Description
Condom use or hormonal contraceptive use at first sex and last (most recent) sex
Statistical Method (Most Adjusted)
Reference group for gender indicator
Higher vs. lower inauthenticity in relationships / objectification of body
Inauthenticity of Self in Relationships was not significantly associated with the use of hormonal contraception or condoms. Higher Objectified Relationship with Body was significantly associated with condom use at first sex (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.36-9.31, p = 0.01) but not significantly associated with use of hormonal contraception.
Summary association oriented to reflect the following relationships: Positive association: indicates more equitable views or division of power and greater contraceptive use or more inequitable views/division of power and lower contraceptive use; Inverse association: reflects more equitable gender views/division of power and lower contraceptive use.
Inconsistent positive association
Socioeconomic status, religiosity