Type: Relationship power/ control
Citation: Mumtaz, Z.; Slaymaker, E.; Salway, S. Condom use in Uganda and Zimbabwe: exploring the influence of gendered access to resources and couple-level dynamics. 2005;():117-145. Calverton, Maryland, ORC Macro, MEASURE DHS,2005
Use of Scale: Measure
Level of Generality: Individual
# of Items Reported: 4
Theme: Gender/social norms, SRH/HIV
Region: Sub-Saharan Africa
Country: Zimbabwe and Uganda
Urban / Rural: nr
Age Group: Includes adolescents (<18)
Age Range: Women: 15 to 49; Men: 15 to 55
# of Subscales: NR
Subscale Name(s): NR
Direction and Meaning:
Response Range: NR
Internal Consistency: NA
Internal Consistency by Subgroup: NA
Test-retest Reliability: NA
Sample Items: When she is tired, when she has just given birth, if she thinks he has multiple partners, and if he has an STI.
- When she is tired, when she has just given birth, if she thinks he has multiple partners, and if he has an STI.
Measured Outcome(s): Condom
Condom use at last sex
Detailed Outcome(s) Description
Condom use was measured as reported use at the most recent sex, both for marital and extramarital partners
Statistical Method (Most Adjusted)
Reference group for gender indicator
Lower acceptability of violence against women
Bivariate or Multivariate Analysis?
Married/cohabitating women in Zimbabwe who used modern contraception and had higher endorsement of violence against women relative to those with lower endorsement were more likely to report condom use (AOR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.49; p=0.027). In contrast, married/cohabitating women in Zimbabwe who reported no modern contraceptive use who had higher endorsement of violence against women were less likely to report condom use relative to those with lower endorsement of violence (AOR: 0.83, 95% CI:0.71, 0.98; p=0.026). There was no relationship among married/cohabitating men in either country.
Summary association oriented to reflect the following relationships: Positive association: indicates more equitable views or division of power and greater condom use or more inequitable views/division of power and lower condom use; Inverse association: reflects more equitable gender views/division of power and lower condom use.
Inconsistent association, mixed direction
Items vary based on each stratified model (empirical modeling approach used).