Type: Relationship power/ control
Citation: Decker MR, Miller E, Raj A, Saggurti N, Donta B, and Silverman JG. Indian men's use of commercial sex workers: prevalence, condom use, and related gender attitudes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010; 53(2): 240-246.
Use of Scale: Measure
Level of Generality: General
# of Items Reported: 4
Theme: SRH/HIV, Gender/social norms
Region: South Asia
Urban / Rural: nr
Age Group: Includes adolescents (<18)
Age Range: 15 to 54
# of Subscales: NR
Subscale Name(s): NR
Direction and Meaning:
Response Range: No; Don't know or depends; Yes
Internal Consistency: Cronbach's alpha: 0.61
Internal Consistency by Subgroup: NA
Test-retest Reliability: NA
Sample Items: Participants' endorsement of four different husband reactions to wives' refusal of sex, including "use force and have sex with her"
- Assessed via standard DHS items; participants’ endorsement of four different husband reactions to wives’ refusal of sex, e.g., “use force and have sex with her even if she doesn’t want to”
Measured Outcome(s): Condom
Inconsistent condom use
Detailed Outcome(s) Description
Inconsistent condom use with commercial sex worker (CSW) in past 12 months. Any report of condom non-use w/ a CSW as one of their 3 most recent sexual contacts or in the past 12 months
Statistical Method (Most Adjusted)
Reference group for gender indicator
High vs. low sexual entitlement
Bivariate or Multivariate Analysis?
Among men in India who reported engaging in transactional sex in the past-year, there was no association between sexual entitlement and condom use with a commercial sex worker (OR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.43, 1.37), p>0.05).
Summary association oriented to reflect the following relationships: Positive association: indicates more equitable views or division of power and greater condom use or more inequitable views/division of power and lower condom use; Inverse association: reflects more equitable gender views/division of power and lower condom use.
Age, education, urban residence, marital status, religion, household wealth